The key to vegetable cultivation

1. Insect net coverage technology

The closed isolation space is formed after covering the insect net with the facility, which can effectively prevent the adult from entering the spawning and larvae into direct damage, and cut off the transmission route of the pest, and the insect control effect is very obvious. The silver-gray insect net also has the effect of repelling aphids. According to the test, in the period from May to October, the 20-mesh silver-gray insect-proof net was used to cover the small-small green vegetables in the whole day. After 14 days and 24 days after emergence, the control effects were 83% and 72%, respectively; 80% dichlorvos EC 800 before planting. 1000 times of spraying the soil once, no pests were found on the plants, and the control effect was as high as 100%. Since the insect net can effectively prevent the control of the aphid-transmitted virus, there is almost no virus disease in the small green vegetables. Compared with the conventional (open field) production, the drug is reduced by 7 times per meal, ensuring pollution-free production. Although the yield per acre is 5.5% lower, the consumption of medicines is reduced by 130 yuan for 7 times, and 67 yuan for the investment of insect nets. The high price of vegetables is 738.7 yuan, and the total income per mu is 805.7 yuan.

2, frequency vibrating insecticidal lamp

Light trapping is a physical control method that uses the phototaxis of pests to induce trapping. The project team will use the frequency-vibration insecticidal lamp technology that integrates light, wave and color to trap insects, and introduces pollution-free production of vegetables. According to the test, the pests trapped by the frequency-vibration insecticidal lamp mainly include more than 40 kinds of pests in 7 orders and 20 families of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, among which Lepidoptera accounted for more than 69.8% of the total amount of traps, and Spodoptera litura and cotton bolls. The insects of the genus Noctuidae accounted for 75.2% of the lepidopteran pests. According to the September-November test, an average of 1415 pests per litter per day. The use of frequency-vibration insecticidal lamps is more than 2 to 3 times per sputum; the application of frequency-vibration insecticidal lamps has little damage to natural enemies, and the benefit-to-harm ratio is ≤1:98.5; the common type of frequency-vibration insecticide The lamp consumes 0.5 degree of electricity per night, which is only 9.4% of the high-pressure mercury lamp, and the use cost is low. With the common type of frequency-vibration insecticidal lamp, it is only necessary to turn off the light and turn on the light every morning and evening, without adding water and washing powder or Diesel; if you choose a light-controlled frequency-vibration insecticidal lamp, it is more convenient to turn off the lights and turn on the lights every morning and evening.

3. Nitrate pollution control technology

Controlling the application rate of nitrogen fertilizer is the key technology to control the nitrate content of vegetables. Each project point study proposed a control index for chemical nitrogen fertilizer application. According to the test, the blind application of organic fertilizer will cause the vegetable nitrate to exceed the standard. The project team proposed that the application rate of high-quality farmyard manure should generally be controlled at 3,000-5,000 kg/mu. It is proposed that all the phosphate fertilizers are used as the base fertilizer, 2/3 of the potash fertilizer is used as the base fertilizer, and 1/3 of the nitrogen fertilizer is used as the base fertilizer; the base fertilizer is mainly based on high-quality farmyard manure, 2/3 is applied, and 1/3 is applied. Re-application of base fertilizer and light application of top dressing can obviously control the nitrate content in vegetables, especially the fast-growing leafy vegetables with short growth period. It is also suggested that in the production of root vegetables and leafy vegetables, the last application of nitrogen fertilizer should be carried out 15 to 20 days before harvesting.

4, yellow board trapping technology

Using yellowing of pests such as aphids, some yellow armyworm boards are hung in horticultural facilities to trap pests. According to the test, in the solar greenhouse producing tomato and cucumber, 1.5 to 1.8 meters high, 20 to 25 pieces of homemade yellow plates of 50 cm × 50 cm or 50 cm × 70 cm per acre can be used to reduce the density of the insects of the aphids by 20 % ~ 40%, reduce the medication 5 to 8 times per week. At the project site, the insect-proof net and the yellow plate are simultaneously applied to the pollution-free production of facilities and vegetables. The insect-proof net covers all weather in summer, and the vents and doors are closed in winter, spring and autumn. The yellow plate traps the pests in the leaking nets throughout the year, which plays a two-pronged role. The number of medications is reduced, and the increase in expenditure is obvious.

5, rain-proof cultivation and disease prevention technology

China is affected by the seasonal winds in the Pacific Ocean. The rain and heat are synchronous, summer is rainy, high temperature, disease is paralyzed, medication is frequent, vegetables are seriously polluted, quality and price are high, and pollution-free production is difficult. To this end, the project team demonstrated demonstration of rain-proof cultivation techniques, and the disease prevention effect was remarkable. According to the test, using plastic film to cover the solar greenhouse to shelter from rain, and covering the shade net to cultivate summer and autumn tomatoes, has the advantages of reducing the number of chemical control and the amount of medication and increasing production and income. Compared with the control (early field), the incidence of late blight and virus disease in rain-resistant tomato cultivation was 23 percentage points and 31 percentage points lower respectively; the number of medications and dosage decreased by 66.7%; the late blight of tomato and the disease rate of plague disease decreased. 17.2 percentage points, fruit cracking and daily burning fruit were also significantly reduced; the yield per mu increased by 17.4%, with a value added of 36.4%.

6, the facility internal control wet disease prevention technology

According to the test of the project team, the high-energy ridge of 15-20 cm in the energy-saving solar greenhouse covers the mulch and cultivates the winter and spring cucumber. Compared with the control (flat, uncovered mulch), the temperature of 5 cm is increased by 1.2 °C to 1.5 °C. The air humidity is reduced by 20% to 30%, the incidence rate and the number of medications are reduced by more than 30%, and the yield is increased by more than 10%. According to the test, the incidence of cucumber downy mildew in greenhouses covered with dripping film is 30.2 percentage points lower than that of ordinary film. In view of the problem that the drip film drip is not anti-fog, the project team also tested and demonstrated the anti-fog type drip multi-functional shed film, the effect is more obvious.

7. Biological pesticide application technology

At present, the most prominent pollutant in vegetable products in China is pesticide residues. To this end, the project team demonstrated and promoted more than 20 kinds of biological pesticides in four major categories: microbes, agricultural antibiotics, plant sources and insect growth regulators. The demonstration and promotion of biological pesticides not only has a good control effect, but also ensures the pollution-free production of vegetables and reduces the pollution of pesticides on water, soil and air. According to the statistics of Chongqing Municipality, the project area has promoted a batch of biological pesticides such as bt and card dead grams, which reduced the amount of chemical pesticides by more than 50%.

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