Mysterious carbon fiber

Mysterious carbon fiber

Why is carbon fiber mysterious? Because carbon fiber has unimaginable strength, stiffness and toughness. Small carbon fibers can achieve our unexpected thoughts. Here's a brief introduction to carbon fiber.

Carbon fiber is a microcrystalline graphite material obtained by carbonizing and graphitizing organic fibers. The microstructure of carbon fiber resembles artificial graphite and is a layered graphite structure. Carbon fiber is a new material with excellent mechanical properties. Its specific gravity is less than 1/4 of that of steel. The tensile strength of carbon fiber resin composites is generally above 3500 MPa, which is 7 to 9 times that of steel, and its tensile modulus is 230. ~430GPa is also higher than steel. Therefore, the specific strength of CFRP is the ratio of the strength of the material to its density can reach more than 2000MPa/(g/cm3), while the specific strength of A3 steel is only about 59MPa/(g/cm3), and its specific modulus is also higher than steel. The higher the specific strength of the material is, the lower the self-weight of the component is, and the higher the specific modulus is, the greater the stiffness of the component is, and in this sense, the application prospect of the carbon fiber in the project has been foreseen.

Carbon fibers are inorganic polymer fibers having a carbon content of more than 90%. Among them, graphite fibers with a carbon content of more than 99% are called graphite fibers. Carbon fiber has high axial strength and modulus, low density, high specific performance, no creep, high temperature resistance in non-oxidizing environment, good fatigue resistance, specific heat and conductivity between non-metal and metal, coefficient of thermal expansion Small and anisotropic, good corrosion resistance, good X-ray transmission. However, its impact resistance is poor, easy to damage, oxidation occurs under the action of strong acid, and metal carbonization, carburization, and electrochemical corrosion occur when compounded with metal (such as aluminum). Therefore, carbon fibers must be surface treated before use.

Carbon fibers can be processed into fabrics, felts, mats, belts, paper and other materials. In addition to the traditional use of carbon fiber in addition to thermal insulation materials, generally not alone, and more as a reinforcing material added to the resin, metal, ceramics, concrete and other materials, constitute a composite material. Carbon fiber-reinforced composites can be used as aircraft structural materials, electromagnetic shielding electrification materials, artificial ligaments and other body replacement materials as well as for the manufacture of rocket shells, motor boats, industrial robots, automotive leaf springs, and drive shafts. From 1994 to 2002, with the academic research from staple fiber carbon fiber to long fiber carbon fiber, technologies and products using carbon fiber to produce heat-generating materials have gradually entered the ** and civilian fields. In China, there are many use cases where long-fiber carbon fiber is used to make national grid cables. At the same time, carbon fiber heating products, carbon fiber heating products, carbon fiber far-infrared physiotherapy products are also increasingly into ordinary families.

Carbon fiber is a dual-use military-civilian material and is a key technology-intensive and politically sensitive material. In the past, the Paris Coordinating Committee (COCOM) headed by the United States imposed an embargo policy on socialist countries at that time. Although COCOM was dissolved in March 1994, the shadow of the embargo was still looming over the sky. Carbon fiber technology still can not lead in, especially high-performance PAN-based yarn technology, even if China enters the WTO, the situation will not be a major change. Therefore, there is no other choice but the Chinese people continue to rely on their own efforts to develop the carbon fiber industry. Therefore, foreign countries, especially Japan and South Korea, which are leading in carbon fiber production technology, have always maintained a very cautious attitude toward China’s exports of carbon fiber materials and products. Only a few Chinese companies can establish cooperative relationships with them and have access to their products.

Carbon fiber is widely used in civilian, automotive, construction, chemical, industrial, aerospace, and supercar fields.

In the field of civil construction, carbon fiber is also used in reinforcement of industrial and civil buildings, railway highway bridges, tunnels, chimneys, and tower structures, etc. It has a small density, high strength, good durability, strong corrosion resistance, and acid resistance. Corrosion of chemicals such as alkali and alkali, good flexibility, strong strain ability. The truss girder roof made of carbon fiber tubes is about 50% lighter than steel, and the large-scale structures have reached the practical level. The construction efficiency and seismic performance have been greatly improved. In addition, when carbon fiber is used as a reinforcing concrete structure, bolts and rivets do not need to be fixed, the disturbance to the original concrete structure is small, and the construction process is simple.

Similarly, in the aviation field, the body of the Boeing 787 also uses carbon fiber, which allows the aircraft to fly faster, lower fuel consumption, and can increase cabin humidity and make passengers more comfortable.

Carbon fiber has been gradually popularized in our lives. Many places where high-strength steels were used were slowly replaced by carbon fiber. With the in-depth study of national scientific research institutions and technological breakthroughs, there will be more material that will be replaced by carbon fiber. Carbon fiber makes our life more comfortable and beautiful.

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