Explosion of dangerous chemicals, how to avoid self-rescue?

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How can we save ourselves in the face of a sudden explosion? How to reduce the degree of injury to people?

First, the general explosion which can cause harm?

1. Explosive burn

Explosive burns are essentially composite injuries of burns and impact injuries, occurring within 1 to 2 meters from the center of the explosion, caused by high temperature gases and flames generated during the explosion. The severity depends on the extent of the burn.

2. Burst injury

After the explosives explode directly on the human body or because the human body is close to the explosion center, the human tissue is broken, the internal organs are broken, the limbs are broken, the flesh and blood flies, and the intact form is lost. Others are due to the penetration of explosives into the body cavity, resulting in penetrating injuries, resulting in major bleeding and fractures.

3. Knock injury

Also known as an impact injury, it is 0.5 to 1.0 meters away from the center of the explosion and is the most serious type of damage. The principle of injury: Explosives produce high-speed high pressure at the moment of explosion, forming a shock wave, which acts on the human body to generate impact injuries.

The shock wave is several times larger than the normal atmospheric pressure, which causes the body to cause multiple organ damages. At the same time, due to the dynamic pressure formed by the high-speed airflow, people fall and are injured, and even the limbs are broken.

Second, the explosion occurred, how to protect yourself?

1. Hurry to "knee" is the most correct

When the explosion occurs, that is, after the "bang", don't rush, because the explosion is likely to be more than once. If you run blindly before the safe area is determined, it is likely to be injured by the second explosion. So what is the first step in self-help is to “kick down” – keeping the body low can not only minimize the damage caused by the explosion, but also prevent the inhalation of excessive toxic fumes.

2. Choose the correct contact method

When an explosion occurs, it should be chosen to stay in an open space rather than in a confined space; try to increase the safe distance of the explosion and reduce the frequency and time of direct contact with the explosive.

3. Looking for protective materials to do personal protective measures

First, choose shelters that can effectively block, reflect, or absorb explosive shock waves. For example, hiding behind earthen walls, buildings, cars, furniture, etc., you can appropriately reduce the specific value of the safety distance. However, the weakest parts of these objects must be avoided to prevent damage from fragmentation.

Secondly, do a good job of physical protection of the human body, such as wearing a helmet, wearing an explosion-proof clothing and other key parts that may be fatal.

4. Effective use of the possible gap effect of the explosion

Generally, in the explosion-proof construction of buildings, we refer to the building units whose building structural strength is weak relative to other units as the gap. The notch effect refers to the weakest part of the building structure, that is, the notch. At this time, the shock wave pressure here is much larger than other places around. If the human body and important equipment are in the gap, it will be seriously injured or damaged. When the explosion occurs, try to keep away from the front and back of the doors and windows, pipe openings, and ditches to reduce the damage caused by shock waves. Measures to be taken when an explosion occurs without a need

Third, how to reduce the extent of the explosion occurred when people hurt? ‍

1. After the explosion, the survivors should be organized to rescue themselves and rescue each other immediately, and immediately call 120, 110, 119 and other first aid and alarm stations for help.

2. Explosion accidents require criminal investigation, medical emergency, firefighting and other departments to cooperate with each other. Before these personnel arrive, the site should be protected and order maintained.

3. Check the injured person's injury and quickly remove the dust and sand in the trachea of ​​the injured person to prevent suffocation. Unconscious people should keep the injured person on their side and keep the airway open. If breathing stops, artificial respiration and heart compression should be performed immediately. Take the materials locally, stop bleeding, dressing, and fixing the injured person, and carry the wounded to pay attention to the horizontal position of the patient who has suffered spinal injury to prevent paraplegia due to displacement.

With the continuous occurrence of the explosion, the scenes of the explosion are also endless. This requires us to take different measures in different environments in the event of an explosion to ensure the safety of ourselves and our families.

(Integrated by the National Security Administration's Mission Center and Dr. An's report)

[Editor: Chen Guofang]

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